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Glossary

The Bernas Estocadas system is from the Negros Occidental region of the Philippines. Thus, the majority of terms are from Hiligaynon or Ilonggo (a Binisaya language spoken in the Western Visayan provinces of Negros Occidental, Guimaras, and Panay). Spelling of Filipino martial arts terms is a fraught space, as vowel sounds like 'o' can be represented by 'u' and vice versa; or 'i' may be replaced by 'y'. It is worth noting that when writing Spanish loan words, authors will sometimes use the Spanish 'c' (eg. Combate, or Corto Mano) while at other times the Filipino 'k' will be used (eg. Krossada, or Kambyó), but the same words may be spelt either way (eg. Kombáte, or Cambio). To try to eliminate some confusion, the majority of spellings used in this glossary come from the online hiligaynon.pinoydictionary.com, and the accents placed upon the words, which are often written without them, are used here to help non-Ilonggo speakers understand where the stress is placed for better pronunciation.

​​A

  • ABANÍKO (v.), to fan; to strike with a fanning motion. In Bernas Estocadas one of the advanced PALABÚLAK strikes.

  • ABANTE (v.), advancing.

  • ABESEDARIO (n.), ABCs, basics, or fundamentals.

  • ABIERTA (n.), open; an open guard position; the opposite of SERRADA.

  • AGÁLON (n.), master.

  • ÁKON (art.), my or mine; can also mean to acquire for oneself.

  • ALKONTRA KARGADA (v.), (from KONTRA "to go against" or "to oppose" and KARGADA "cargo or load"), the principle of "meeting the force" when engaged in defence. The opposite of PAÁNOD.

  • ANTÍNG-ANTÍNG (n.), amulets, talismen, or charms that are believed by the wearer to give them special powers, such as an ability to avoid being cut. Sometimes warn as tattoos.

  • ANTIS (pr.), before; to anticipate the opponent's intent, and to initiate  your counter as they prepare to attack, before they have a chance to move. 

  • ÁPAT (n.), four.

  • ARNISADOR (n.), a stick-fighter, whose weapon is both their sword and their armour (shield).

  • ATRAS (v.),, withdrawing or retreating.

​​B

  • BAG-ÓHAN (n.), new, beginner, green, inexperienced.

  • BAKÂ (v.), to straddle; in Bernas Estocadas the Horse Stance.

  • BALOS (v.), to counter.

  • BALOS DAMÔ (n., v.), to perform multiple counters.

  • BARA BARA (n.), wild or patternless striking, where defence is ignored.

  • BASTÓN (n.), stick or cane; in Bernas Estocadas a stick of 29 inches. Also one of  the names given to the practice of stick-fighting in GM Bernas' youth.

  • BASTÓNERO (n.), a stick-fighter (a term that suggests a lack of formal training). 

  • BÁTAK (v.), to pull upwards, raise, or pull aloft. Im Bernas Estocadas a powerful upward strike while shifting into a backward stance.

  • BÓLO (n.), a large knife, machete or short sword, common as a "working blade" or utility weapon in the Philippines, and famously usedby Filipinos in WWII.

  • BÚTONG (v.), to pull or tug.

C

  • CHAKO (n.), the flail, hinged staff, or nunchaku.

  • COMBATE HENERÁL (n.), general combat; the core fighting concepts and drills of the system.

  • CORTO MÁNO (n.), close hand (keeping your arms close to your body), or close range (the distance at which you can strike with either hand and the butt of your weapon); or the in-fighting approach to combat. C

D

  • DÁGA (n.), dagger

  • DAGASÓ (n.), literally "dagger smoke"; in Ilonggo the term used for the art of knife fighting.

  • DAGDAG (v.), drop; to strike straight downwards.

  • DÁGWAY (n.), form; in Bernas Estocadas forms start out as a pre-set routine, but ultimately provide a structured base for improvisation.

  • DÁSIG (v.), to be quick, or to move fast.

  • DE LÁSTIKO (n.), elastic; an elastic strike that snaps out and back along the same trajectory.

  • DE PONDO (v.), to put, park, or anchor; a strike that definitively stops at its intended target.

  • DERECHO (n.), direct; a direct strike that penetrates through the target.

  • DEPENSA (v.), defence; in Bernas Estocadas the defensive techniques, and applied specifically to the 12 Blocks.

  • DÓBLE (n.), double, duplicate, twin.

  • DÓGSING (v.), to nudge, rough-house, light-touch play as if flirting. In Bernas Estokadas, used to describe playful exploratory performance of drills, especially building to random attack feeds.

  • DUHÁ (n.), two, couple.

  • DÚLUG NA (com.), Stop, Halt, Cease!

  • DÚMUG (v.), to wrestle or grapple.

  • DUNGÁNAY (v.), to attack and defend simultaneously, to move at the same time.

E

  • EKIS (n.), a letter X; in Bernas Estocadas the Cross Stance.

  • ESKRIMADOR (n.), a person with well developed skill in the combative use of the stick and sword. 

  • ESPÁDA (n.), sword.

  • ESPÁDA Y DÁGA (n.), the sword and dagger method of fighting.

  • ESTOCADA (n.), (or ESTOKADA), fighting methods, often suggesting the fencing actions of parry and thrust, or parry and counter, or a killing blow. The Spanish etymology includes the Estoc, a type or rapier or stiletto sword, that is now used exclusively by the Matador to kill a bull, in the coup de grâce action of a bullfight.

G

  • GARÁHE (n., v.), garage; to park or chamber your stick in a resting position on your arm or shoulder.

  • GÍNANG (n.), Madame.

  • GÍNING (n.), Miss.

  • GINÓO (n.), Mister or Sir.

  • GINÚNTING (n.), a sword, generally with a straight cutting edge, and a curved spine. (See also TALIBÓNG).

  • GÚLANG (adj.), ripening, maturing.

  • GÚNTING (n., v.), to scissor; using a crossing motion to intercept the opponent's weapon arm, simultaneously parrying and hitting or cutting.

H

  • HABÁL (adj.), ripening, inflamed, reddish.

  • HÁGBAS (v.), to cut the grass; an upward strike to the knees or elbows.

  • HÁNAS (v.), to drill, train, rehearse, or habituate. In Bernas Estocadas, used to describe controlled sparring pressure-testing exercises.

  • HANGÁWAY (n.), fighter or warrior.

  • HILÁY LIKÓD (n.), lean to the rear; in Bernas Estocadas the Back Stance.

  • HILÁY TUBANG (n.), lean to the front; in Bernas Estocadas the Forward Stance.

  • HINOG (adj.), ripe.

  • HÍNAY (v.), to move slowly, gently, and leisurely.

I

  • ÍMO (art.), yours.

  • ÍMO-ÁKON (n.), yours-mine; the turn-taking 'give-and-take' drill in Bernas Estocadas; the equivalent of SOMBRADA in other systems.

  • ÍMON (adj.) jealous, jealousy.

  • ÍNDIS (n.), competition, match, tournament.

  • ISÁ (n.), one, single, sole.

K

  • KAYÂ (n.), supine; an open wrist, or palm facing up position of the hand.The opposite of KULOB. In Cebuano systems this position is called HAYANG.

  • KAGÁT (v.), to snap, seize, or bite; the technique of closing the NGANGÁNG BUÁYA (crocodile's mouth) around the opponent's hand or wrist.

  • KÁMBYO (v.), to change, exchange, or switch; a technique for switching sides of your opponent's arm through forearm or weapon contact.

  • KARANZA (v.) to be active, move about, or dance about; in FMA circles it means improvised freeform shadowboxing or shadow-fencing.

  • KÁWAT (v.) to steal or rob; or stealth, secrecy, slyness, wiliness, craftiness. In Bernas Estocadas the term given to sudden deceptive movements that rob the opponent of any time to defend appropriately.

  • KINAÁDMAN (n.), "old knowledge" or learning, wisdom, cleverness. The name often given to the spiritual knowledge associated with stick fighting in Escalante during GM Bernas' youth.

  • KINADÁAN (n.), old, ancient, old custom.

  • KÍWAL (v.), to lever; using your arm, leg, or torso to add leverage to a strike.

  • KÓRO (v.), to form a circle.

  • KROSSADA (n.), to cross. In Bernas Estocadas, the combination of Opensa 1 & 2.

  • KÚBAY (v.), to line up, or to form in line, file, or row.

  • ​KULOB (n.), prone; a closed wrist, or palm facing down position of the hand. The opposite of KAYÂ.

L

  • LAB-ÁNAY (v.), "slash first"; a blade versus blade drill.

  • LABÔ (v.), to strike or slash; a horizontal forehand strike to the opponent's head (ie. Opensa 10).

  • LAKÓT (v.), to mix; in Bernas Estocadas, an advanced drill in which the strikes that start in ABIERTA are combined with strikes that start in SERRADA, and vice versa.

  • LANSI (v.), to fake or feint.

  • LÁNTAW (v.), to watch or observe.

  • LÁRGO MÁNO (n.), long hand (using full reach and extension), or fighting at long-range (the distance where your weapon can meet the opponent's extended hand, but not connect with their body without stepping; and a style of fighting in which you use your reach to fight at the maximum distance you can, aiming to 'defang the snake' or strike the opponent's weapon hand, before moving in to finish).

  • LIHÁY-LIHÁY (v.), to dodge, side-step, duck, or evade like a wave (as in a Boxer's bob & weave movement).

  • LÍNGHOD (adj.), immature, unripe, green, tender.

  • LÍNYA (n.), line or stroke; the path of a slash, strike, or thrust.

  • LÓLO ÁMO (neologism), grandmaster; literally "Grandfather Master", the founder of the system.

M

  • MANUNÚDLÒ (n.), teacher, instructor.

  • MÉDYO MÁNO (n.), medium hand or middle range, the distance at which the non-weapon hand can come into play for parrying, blocking, and jamming; and your weapon can now connect with the opponent's head and torso.

  • MUSTRADOR (n.), someone who is representing an art, a kind of ambassador for the art.

N

  • NGANGÁNG BUÁYA (n.), open mouth of the crocodile; the position of the alive hand so it is ready to grasp the opponent's hand (see also KAGÁT to snap, seize, or bite).

O

  • OLISI (n.), a rod or stick; in Bernas Estocadas a stick of 36 inches, usually with a protuberance at one end that is used like the pommel of a sword, to stoop one loosing one's grip on the weapon.

  • OPENSA (n., v.), offence or attack; the offensive striking techniques of Bernas Estocadas, applied specifically to the 12 Strikes.

  • OPENSA-DEPENSA (n., v.), attack-defence; the fundamental partner drill in Bernas Estocadas in which the defender executes the 12 Depensa, in response to the 12 Opensa delivered by the feeder.

  • OPO (excl.), Yes!

  • ORAMISMO (pr.), at the same time; to counter the opponent in the same timing as their attack. 

  • ORASYÓN (n.), a prayer or oration to the Divine, saints, or spirits; in Filipino Martial Arts often a special and secret incantation used as a means of empowering an amulet (see ANTÍNG-ANTÍNG).

  • OTSO OTSO (n.), figure 8. In Bernas Estocadas, the combination of Opensa 3 & 4.

P

  • PÁRES PÁRES (v.), to couple or to pair; a fundamental drill in Bernas Estocadas in which the 12 strikes and 12 blocks are practiced in pairs.

  • PASUNÓD (v.), to follow; in Bernas Estocadas, practicing strikes or blocks in a consecutive numerical sequence.

  • PAÁNOD (v.), to float down the river; in Bernas Estocadas, the term used to describe "going with the force" of an attack, in contrast to ALKONTRA KARGADA.

  • PAGSOLÓNDAN (n.), rules; the fundamental principles to be followed.

  • PAHÚAY (v.), to rest; a natural standing position with one's weapon hanging by their side.

  • PAÍWAY (v.), to evade and parry overhead.

  • PAKÁL (n.), icepick or reverse grip on a knife.

  • PALABÚLAK (n.), flowering; the advanced strikes of Bernas Estocadas including: ABANÍKO, PÁLPAL, WASIWAS, and REDONDA.

  • PALAKÁT (v.), to go; a footwork drill in Bernas Estocadas.

  • PALÁPAW (v.), to pass; in Bernas Estocadas a passing drill.

  • PALÍGAD (v.), to pass, or let pass by. Another way of describing the TAPOS (after) timing.

  • PÁLPAL (v.), to stake or peg; one of the four PALABÚLAK of Bernas Estocadas in which you strike downwards with the the side of your weapon.

  • PAMATÎ (v.), to listen or hear.

  • PANGÚYAT (v.), to grasp hold; the method of holding the weapon.​

  • PANÍNDOG (n.), to stand; a stance drill in Bernas Estocadas.

  • PANG-ÁWAY (v.), fighting practice; in Bernas Estocadas, the combative drills of the system.

  • PANG-ÁGAW (v.), to seize, snatch, or take by force; the term for weapon disarming.

  • PATADLONG (n.), Stake or standard grip on the knife.

  • PÁYONG (n.), umbrella; a block in which the tip of one's weapon is pointing to the ground and the weapon is used as a shield.

  • PEKITI TIRSIA (n.), Literally "Close Third" (the equivalent of CORTO MANO, one of the three ranges of weapon combat widely referred to as Largo, Medio, and Corto, in contemporary Filipino Martial Arts and referring to the range in which you can strike the opponent with the butt of your weapon, or both hands); Probably best translated into English as "Close Quarters" and used in Ilonggo as a reference to Eskrima in general, especially those systems of Eskrima with an emphasis on in-fighting.

  • ​PIGAR (n.), to apply pressure to the opponent's weapon arm in order to maintain control or clear the line for a clean counterstrike.

  • PÍNÙTI (n.), a cutlass type sword or Bólo, that is relatively straight, with a slightly curved belly, and either a clip point or drop point tip.

  • POSISYÓN (n., v.), to position; methods of positioning your stick for combat. (See SERRADA, ABIERTA, and SÉNTRO).

  • PREPARAR (v.), to prepare; the system's central on-guard position.

  • PÚNGKÒ (v.), to sit or be seated; in Bernas Estocadas the Cat Stance.

  • PUNYÁL (n.), dagger.

R

  • REDONDA (n.), round; a circular strike that starts and ends in the same location, that forms one of the four PALABÚLAK of Bernas Estocadas.

  • ROMPIDA (v.), to break. In Bernas Estocadas, fast, hard, and powerful striking (often up and down, though not exclusively in this formation, as is often the case in other systems).

S

  • SAGÁNG (v.), to stop, prevent, ward off, or parry; blocking techniques.

  • SAGÁNG-SAGÁNG (v.), literally "blocking"; the name given to friendly "light-sparring", sometimes used as a warm up to something more intense.

  • SALAMAT (excl.), thanks.

  • SALUDO (n., v.), to salute; a sign of respect and gratitude, by bringing the weapon hand over the heart, and bowing.

  • SANTIKANAY (v.), the practice of hitting sticks together, especially in double stick practice (often called Sinawali drills, a term actually referencing the herringbone pattern of weaving two sticks that is a signature move of many Filipino Doble Baston systems).

  • SÉNTRO (n.), central; a guard position in which you place your weapon on the centreline.

  • SERRADA (n.), closed; a closed guard position in which one's weapon crosses the centreline; the opposite of ABIERTA.

  • SIÉTE (n.), seven.

  • SINAWALI (v.), to weave; the Herringbone striking pattern when using double sticks.

  • SÍPÀ (v.), to kick.

  • SÚGOD NA (com.), Start, Begin, Commence!

  • SÚMBAG (v.), to punch.

  • SÚNGKOD (n.), a short staff or walking stick; in Bernas Estocadas a long-stick of 45 inches.

T

  • TAGÁPAT (v.), four each; a principle or drill in which strikes or blocks are combined in groups of four.

  • TAGDUHÁ (v.), two each; a principle or drill in which strikes or blocks are combined in groups of two.

  • TAGÍSA (v.), one each; a principle or drill in which strikes or blocks are applied as singular movements.

  • TÁTLO (n.), three.

  • TAGTÁTLO (v.), three each; a principle or drill in which strikes or blocks are combined in groups of three.

  • TALIBÓNG (n.), a large bolo, or sword, typically with a straight back and curved belly. (See also GINÚNTING).

  • TÁMPÀ (v.), to slap or strike with the palm of the hand.

  • TAPÁS (v.), to cut down or to fell; the downward diagonal strikes of Bernas Estocadas (ie. Opensa 1 & 2).

  • TAPÁT (v.), to end with resolve.

  • TAPÍ (v.), to brush off, or knock off course with a sudden blow. In Bernas Estocadas a parrying manoeuvre with the alive hand.

  • TAPÍ TAPÍ (v.), to knock away with the hands. In FMA, drills in which the players parry before slashing, striking, or thrusting.

  • TAPÍK (v.), to stick, cling, or adhere to.

  • TAPOS (pr.), after; to allow the opponent's attack to conclude before executing your own counterattack (ie. evading and then countering).

  • TOTSADA (v.), to thrust; the thrusting attacks of Bernas Estocadas (Opensa 5, 6, 8, & 12) that together form a cross shape.

  • TIÉMPO or TYEMPO (n.), time or timing.

  • TIKALÁN (n.), also TIKALON; a boaster, braggart, or chatterbox.

  • TíOG (v.), to spin or turn.

  • TULOD (v.), to push.

  • TÚMBADA (v.), to drop or knockdown; striking the ground with one's weapon to power your strike and evade an opponent's attack or counter.

W

  • WASIWAS (v.), to wave to and fro, to brandish, or to wag; the back and forth horizontal strikes that form one of the four PALABÚLAK of the system.

  • WÁSLIK (v.), to strike backwards, to whip, or turn back (Opensa 9); see also WÁSLIK in defensive section.

  • WIDO (n., v.), (from the Spanish OIDO meaning "hearing") to learn by ear, or learning without formal instruction; a kind of street smarts; the old informal way of teaching Filipino Martial Arts.

  • WITIK (v.), to flip or flick (in De Lastiko fashion). In Bernas Estocadas Opensa 11, the upward vertical strike to the groin is specifically executed and referred to as a Witik.

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